Instance Attributes in Raku

In Raku, an object’s methods are fully accessible by default but its data (as attributes) cannot be accessed directly outside the class unless explicitly specified. In order to access the data from outside for reading, writing or both, you must make it public somehow. What level of access you allow to an object’s data will mostly depend on the way you declare its attributes.

The $! twigil

Let’s start with a simple example of a Raku class definition:

# person01.p6
class Person {
    has $!name;

my $john = => 'Suth'); # By default, arguments passed to
                                       # new must be named (key-value pairs)
put $; #=> Error: No such method 'name' for invocant
                # of type 'Person'.

In this example, you can neither set the value of an attribute (e.g., john’s name) through the new constructor nor retrieve it since it was never set after all. Attributes declared with the $! twigil are private and can only be accessed from within the class via !. This means that not even the default new constructor can be used to set an explicitly $!-declared attribute during object construction.

A straightforward solution would be to handle the attribute initialization ourselves by implementing a TWEAK submethod for our class. In Raku, multiple routines are invoked during the different phases of the object construction and TWEAK is the last one of them. I won’t go into the nitty-gritty details but in short, the TWEAK submethod allows you to assign values to instance variables based on the values of other attributes or instance variables:

# person02.p6
class Person {
    has $!name;

    submethod TWEAK( :$name ) {
        $!name = $name;

    =begin comment
    Our TWEAK implementation involves simply setting up the attribute without 
    any validation/modification of the argument so the previous submethod
    could be reduced to:

    submethod TWEAK( :$!name ) { }

    with the attribute being set up right in the TWEAK's signature. 
    :$!name is the colon-pair version of $!name => $name.
    =end comment


my $john = => 'John');
put $; #=> Error: No such method 'name' for invocant
                # of type 'Person'.

Here we’ve created a TWEAK submethod that takes a named parameter (e.g., :$name) and uses it to set the $!name attribute. Before we get to this point, the constructor (new in this instance) supply its named arguments to the bless method which builds up the object and pass it to the BUILD submethod. Afterwards, BUILD will either return the object or turns it to the next and last phase, the TWEAK submethod, if it exists.

At this point, we should be able to set the $!name attribute properly at object construction but we’re far from being able to access it from outside the class. We must create an accessor (or getter) method to do so:

# person03.p6
class Person {
    has $!name;
    submethod TWEAK( :$name ) {
        $!name = $name;
    # Our accessor method
    method get-name {

my $john = => 'John');
put $john.get-name; #=> «John␤»

At last, we’ve been able to

This was an educational and insightful exercise. However, the main reason we went through all of this was to show how much Raku gives you for free by using the constructs presented in the next sections. Let’s start off with the $. twigil.

The $. twigil

Declaring an attribute with the $. twigil does two main things:

Let’s look at our updated example:

# person04.p6
class Person {
    has $.name;

my $alina = => 'Alina');

# The method is named after its attribute
put $; #=> «Alina␤»

As you can see, we did away with all the unnecessary boilerplate for such a simple class. It’s worth noting that the attribute must still be accessed with !. We can think of the $. twigil as creating both a private attribute ($!attr) and a read-only accessor method (attr()). In fact, we could access an attribute’s value inside the class with its accessor but we wouldn’t be accessing the attribute directly but through a method invocation. Thus, depending on your goal, you might be inclined to either access an attribute directly or if exists, through its accessor inside the class.

The is rw trait

In Raku, a trait is defined as a compiler hook attached to objects and classes that modify their default behavior, functionality or representation.

For simplicity’s sake, we’ll limit ourselves to the modification of an object’s attributes but if you want to learn more about the different traits and how to implement your own, head over to the documentation.

Let’s say we don’t only want to read the data from an object, but change it as well. As always, one obvious solution is to declare a method that allows us to do so. This kind of method that changes an object’s attributes is known as as a setter, which will usually take an argument and apply it to a particular attribute:

# person05.p6
class Person {
    has $.name;

    # Set the $!name with the provided argument
    method set-name( $name ) {
        $!name = $name

my $p1 = => 'Joe');
put $; #=> «Joe␤»

# Changing the person's name

put $; #=> «Alua␤»

However, by Raku’s standards, this is still too much work. Raku wants us to be happy and most importantly, lazy. As result, it provides us with the is rw trait to tackle this particular problem. This trait marks an attribute as read/write as opposed to the default is readonly trait. When is rw is applied to the attribute, the default accessor (provided by $.) for the attribute will return a writable value. Now let’s update our class accordingly:

# person06.p6
class Person {
    has $.name is rw;

my $p1 = => 'Jana');
put $; #=> «Jana␤»

# Changing the person's name
$ = 'Alua';

put $; #=> «Alua␤»

And just like that we got rid off our custom setter.

Remember that a writable value is returned and thus the syntax changes from using a method invocation (e.g., $'Alua')) to assigning directly to the object’s attribute through a method invocation (e.g., $ = 'Alua').

More traits

The is default trait

By default, assigning Nil to a read/write attribute will set it back to Any. However, we might be interested in using a more meaningful default value. For instance, for our Person class, we could use John as the person’s default name:

# person07.p6
class Person {
    has $.name is default('John') is rw;

# Attribute not set at construction so it gets its default value
my $p1 =;
put $; #=> «John␤»

# Setting the attribute
my $p2 = => 'Ruth');
put $; #=> «Ruth␤»

# Reverting it back to its default value
$ = Nil;
put $; #=> «John␤»

The is required trait

As we saw in the previous example (e.g., my $p1 =;), we didn’t need to provide the attribute’s value right away during the object construction. Unlike what you might think, this isn’t due to our use of the is default trait. In fact, attributes don’t require to be set during object construction because the default new constructor expects named parameters and they’re optional by default. Certainly, the attributes won’t have their values if none are provided but the compiler won’t yell at you for not supplying them. This is where the is required trait comes handy, which will mark the attribute as to be filled with a value when the object is instantiated; failing to do so will cause a runtime error:

# person08.p6
class Person {
    has $.name is required;

# This works fine...
my $p1 = => 'Rob');
$; #=> «Rob␤»

my $p2 =; # Runtime error: The attribute '$!name' is required,
                       # but you did not provide a value for it.

As you may have figured out, using the is default and is required traits in conjuntion will cause is default not to take effect since doing so would mean the attribute has a default value and thus, its initialization at object construction isn’t neccessary.

The is DEPRECATED trait

There some instances in which some attributes might not be useful anymore for client code but you might want to keep them around for some reason. In Raku, you can do that and still let the client know that such attributes has been deprecated. For this, you can use the is DEPRECATED trait to mark an attribute as deprecated. You can also provide a message telling the client what to use instead. Let’s add more specific attributes to our Person class and discourage our client from using the $.name attribute:

# person09.p6
class Person {
    has $.name is DEPRECATED("'firstname' and 'lastname'");
    has $.firstname is required;
    has $.lastname is required;

# Initialization won't trigger the warning...
my $rf =
    name      => 'Richard Feynman',
    firstname => 'Richard',
    lastname  => 'Feynman',

# ...the usage will do, which will send it to STDERR.
put $;

After the program is run, the following message is printed:

Richard Feynman
Saw 1 occurrence of deprecated code.
Method name (from Person) seen at:
  person09.p6, line 16
Please use 'firstname' and 'lastname' instead.
Please contact the author to have these occurrences of deprecated code
adapted, so that this message will disappear!

Private methods

At the beginning, we mentioned that a Raku object’s methods are public. However, we can also declare methods as private, in which case they can only be invoked from within the class. A private method is declared just like a public method, however the method’s name is prepended with !. They’re quite useful for breaking tasks into smaller subtasks and restrict their actions to other methods inside the class. Let’s use a different example to show them off:

# sodamach.p6
class SodaMachine { 
    has Int $.coke-cans;
    has Int $.sprite-cans;
    has Int $.fanta-cans;
    has $!cost-per-can = 1.15;

    # Public method body using the private method
    method get-total-cost {
       self!get-total-cans * $!cost-per-can;

    # Notice the ! in front of the method
    method !get-total-cans {
        $!coke-cans + $!sprite-cans + $!fanta-cans;

my SodaMachine $machine .= new:
    coke-cans   => 5,
    sprite-cans => 12,
    fanta-cans  => 8

put $machine.get-total-cost; #=> 28.75

put $machine.get-total-cans; #=> Error: No such method 'get-total-cans'
                             # for invocant of type 'SodaMachine'.

As you can see, private methods are called with a ! on the invoking object (self) inside the class.


As we evidenced in this post, Raku provides you with several ways of declaring attributes and tailor them to your specific needs. From objects that hide everything from the outside world to objects that are more charitable with their data, everything is up for the taking in Raku.

Posted: May 30, 2019.
Tags: raku, perl6, attributes, OOP